The following teaching is inspired by The TORAH Portion “BESHALACH/When He (Pharoah) Sent or Let Go”.
Note that the Spirit of the Amalekites lives on (more information on this to be added soon).
The answer to the above question is no, Esau never really forgave Jacob/Israel for stealing his birthright. You will see why and how below.
When reading the Holy Scriptures, I have always wondered who the Amalekites really were and why they and the Children of Israel were not on good terms. Well, the answer is hidden in the Book of Jasher. It started back then on the day of Jacob’s/Israel’s funeral and lasted some time then laid to rest and then started all over again after leaving Egypt.
In summary, when the children of Israel/Jacob carried his corpse back to the Land of Israel which at the time was known as Canaan) to bury him in the Cave of Macphelah which he had purchased from the Philistines, Esau heard about his brother’s death. He then went with his family to Jacob’s/Israel’s funeral, where he started some trouble. He confronted Joseph whom at the time had taken on the position of First Born of the Children of Jacob/Israel (based on Jacob’s/Israel’s last blessings) as well as King of Egypt together with Pharoah. The confrontation led to a series of battles. Esau was trying to claim the land now that his brother had passed on. No wonder, YAH said “Jacob I loved, Esau I hated.” Esau, when growing up did not show any interest in YAHUVEH/YAHWEH, the GOD of his ancestors. Jacob spent a lot of time sitting at Abraham’s and Isaac’s feet learning from them however Esau always went out to hunting. In fact, Abraham died in Jacob’s bosom. Abraham had called him to bless him for the last time, that is to say, prophesy into Jacob’s life as well as advise him. Some time after talking, both Abraham and Jacob slept off. By the time Jacob woke up, Abraham had passed on.
Esau told Joseph that the piece of land did not belong to his brother Israel/Jacob because there was no proof of that. Esau did this because he wanted to take advantage of Israel/Jacob’s death by taking over the land since Israel’s/Jacob’s children were not present during the signing of the deed of the land. There was no witness during the agreement. When Joseph sent Naphtali to Egypt to collect the deed, Esau knew that he would not be able to take advantage of this brother’s descendants. He then drew his sword and started fighting against them. Esau ended up dying that day and some of his descendants including his grandson Zepho were held captive by Joseph and taken back to Egypt where they stayed for a long time until after Joseph’s death. Since that day, Esau’s descendants were not at rest. They were not happy and constantly tried to avenge the captivity of Esau’s other descendants who had been held captive in Egypt. The Children of Israel ended up fighting battle after battle even while in Egypt because the Children of Esau did not stop attacking them. Click here and here to read the full accounts of what happened.
It has been said by some that the current Palestinians are not really the descendants of Canaan but rather Esau. It is very much possible that this is the case.
The Amalekites are the descendants of the Amalek. Now who was Amalek?
Let us read the Holy Biblical Scriptures:
Genesis 14:7 Names of God Bible (NOG)
7 On their way back, they came to En Mishpat (that is, Kadesh), and they conquered the whole territory of the Amalekites and also the Amorites who were living at Hazazon Tamar.
Note that Genesis 14:7 was written by Moses a long time after the event took place. During Abraham’s time, the place was not called Amalek because Amalek did not exist then. He was yet to come. But by Moses’ time, Amalek had already been born and even become a ruler hence his kingdom named after him.
Amalek was actually a descendant of Abraham through Esau.
Genesis 36:9-19 Names of God Bible (NOG)
9 This is the account of Esau and his descendants. He was the father of the people of Edom in the mountains of Seir.
10 These were the names of Esau’s sons:
Eliphaz, son of Esau’s wife Adah, and Reuel, son of Esau’s wife Basemath.
11 The sons of Eliphaz were
Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz. 12 Timna was a concubine[a]of Esau’s son Eliphaz. She gave birth to Amalek for Eliphaz. These were the grandsons of Esau’s wife Adah.
13 These were Reuel’s sons:
Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the grandsons of Esau’s wife Basemath.
14 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah, daughter of Anah and granddaughter of Zibeon. She gave birth to Jeush, Jalam, and Korah for Esau.
15 These were the tribal leaders among Esau’s descendants:
The sons of Eliphaz, Esau’s firstborn, were
Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz, 16 Korah, Gatam, and Amalek. These were the tribal leaders descended from Eliphaz in Edom. They were the grandsons of Adah.
17 These were the tribal leaders among the descendants of Esau’s son Reuel:
Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the tribal leaders descended from Reuel in Edom. They were the grandsons of Esau’s wife Basemath.
18 These were the tribal leaders among the descendants of Esau’s wife Oholibamah:
Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These were the tribal leaders descended from Esau’s wife Oholibamah, Anah’s daughter.
19 These were the descendants of Esau (that is, Edom), who were tribal leaders.
Amalek (Hebrew: עֲמָלֵק, Modern Amalek Tiberian ʻĂmālēq) is a nation described in the Old Testament of the Bible.
The name “Amalek” can refer to the nation’s founder, a grandson of Esau; his descendents, the Amalekites; or the territories of Amalek which they inhabited.
The Old Testament describes the Amalekites as a tribe which lived in ancient Israel and in the land called Moab, in what the Romans called Arabia Petraea (Moab and the desert of Sinai), a region depopulated in the fourteenth century BC and then occupied by Edomites.
According to the Book of Genesis and 1 Chronicles, Amalek was the son of Eliphaz and the concubine Timna. Timna was a Horite and sister of Lotan.
Amalek appears in the genealogy of Esau (Gen. 36:12; 1 Chr. 1:36) who was the chief of an Edomite tribe (Gen. 36:16).
Amalek is described as the “chief of Amalek” in Genesis 36:16, in which it is surmised that he ruled a clan or territory named after him.
In the chant of Balaam at Numbers, 24:20, Amalek was called the ‘first of the nations’, attesting to high antiquity.
According to the Old Testament, the Amalekites inhabited the Negev. They are commonly considered to be Amalek’s descendants through the genealogy of Esau. This is probably based on the association of this tribal group with the steppe region of ancient Israel and the area of Kadesh (Genesis 14:7). As a people, the Amalekites were identified as a recurrent enemy of the Israelites.
Exodus 17:8-16 Names of God Bible (NOG)
God Defeats the Amalekites
8 The Amalekites fought Israel at Rephidim. 9 Moses said to Joshua, “Choose some of our men. Then fight the Amalekites. Tomorrow I will stand on top of the hill. I will hold in my hand the staff Elohim told me to take along.”
10 Joshua did as Moses told him and fought the Amalekites, while Moses, Aaron, and Hur went to the top of the hill. 11 As long as Moses held up his hands, Israel would win, but as soon as he put his hands down, the Amalekites would start to win. 12 Eventually, Moses’ hands felt heavy. So Aaron and Hur took a rock, put it under him, and he sat on it. Aaron held up one hand, and Hur held up the other. His hands remained steady until sunset. 13 So Joshua defeated the Amalekite army in battle.
14 Yahweh said to Moses, “Write this reminder on a scroll, and make sure that Joshua hears it, too: I will completely erase any memory of the Amalekites from the earth.”
15 Moses built an altar and called it Yahweh Nissi. 16 He said, “Because a hand was lifted against Yah’s throne,[a] Yahweh will be at war against the Amalekites from one generation to the next.”
Book of Jasher, Chapter 81
1 And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides the little ones and their wives.
2 Also a mixed multitude went up with them, and flocks and herds, even much cattle.
3 And the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in the land of Egypt in hard labor, was two hundred and ten years.
4 And at the end of two hundred and ten years, the Lord brought forth the children of Israel from Egypt with a strong hand.
5 And the children of Israel traveled from Egypt and from Goshen and from Rameses, and encamped in Succoth on the fifteenth day of the first month.
6 And the Egyptians buried all their first born whom the Lord had smitten, and all the Egyptians buried their slain for three days.
7 And the children of Israel traveled from Succoth and encamped in Ethom, at the end of the wilderness.
8 And on the third day after the Egyptians had buried their first born, many men rose up from Egypt and went after Israel to make them return to Egypt, for they repented that they had sent the Israelites away from their servitude.
9 And one man said to his neighbor, Surely Moses and Aaron spoke to Pharaoh, saying, We will go a three days’ journey in the wilderness and sacrifice to the Lord our God.
10 Now therefore let us rise up early in the morning and cause them to return, and it shall be that if they return with us to Egypt to their masters, then shall we know that there is faith in them, but if they will not return, then will we fight with them, and make them come back with great power and a strong hand.
11 And all the nobles of Pharaoh rose up in the morning, and with them about seven hundred thousand men, and they went forth from Egypt on that day, and came to the place where the children of Israel were.
12 And all the Egyptians saw and behold Moses and Aaron and all the children of Israel were sitting before Pi-hahiroth, eating and drinking and celebrating the feast of the Lord.
13 And all the Egyptians said to the children of Israel, Surely you said, We will go a journey for three days in the wilderness and sacrifice to our God and return.
14 Now therefore this day makes five days since you went, why do you not return to your masters?
15 And Moses and Aaron answered them, saying, Because the Lord our God has testified in us, saying, You shall no more return to Egypt, but we will betake ourselves to a land flowing with milk and honey, as the Lord our God had sworn to our ancestors to give to us.
16 And when the nobles of Egypt saw that the children of Israel did not hearken to them, to return to Egypt, they girded themselves to fight with Israel.
17 And the Lord strengthened the hearts of the children of Israel over the Egyptians, that they gave them a severe beating, and the battle was sore upon the Egyptians, and all the Egyptians fled from before the children of Israel, for many of them perished by the hand of Israel.
18 And the nobles of Pharaoh went to Egypt and told Pharaoh, saying, The children of Israel have fled, and will no more return to Egypt, and in this manner did Moses and Aaron speak to us.
19 And Pharaoh heard this thing, and his heart and the hearts of all his subjects were turned against Israel, and they repented that they had sent Israel; and all the Egyptians advised Pharaoh to pursue the children of Israel to make them come back to their burdens.
20 And they said each man to his brother, What is this which we have done, that we have sent Israel from our servitude?
21 And the Lord strengthened the hearts of all the Egyptians to pursue the Israelites, for the Lord desired to overthrow the Egyptians in the Red Sea.
22 And Pharaoh rose up and harnessed his chariot, and he ordered all the Egyptians to assemble, not one man was left excepting the little ones and the women.
23 And all the Egyptians went forth with Pharaoh to pursue the children of Israel, and the camp of Egypt was an exceedingly large and heavy camp, about ten hundred thousand men.
24 And the whole of this camp went and pursued the children of Israel to bring them back to Egypt, and they reached them encamping by the Red Sea.
25 And the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and beheld all the Egyptians pursuing them, and the children of Israel were greatly terrified at them, and the children of Israel cried to the Lord.
26 And on account of the Egyptians, the children of Israel divided themselves into four divisions, and they were divided in their opinions, for they were afraid of the Egyptians, and Moses spoke to each of them.
27 The first division was of the children of Reuben, Simeon, and Issachar, and they resolved to cast themselves into the sea, for they were exceedingly afraid of the Egyptians.
28 And Moses said to them, Fear not, stand still and see the salvation of the Lord which He will effect this day for you.
29 The second division was of the children of Zebulun, Benjamin and Naphtali, and they resolved to go back to Egypt with the Egyptians.
30 And Moses said to them, Fear not, for as you have seen the Egyptians this day, so shall you see them no more for ever.
31 The third division was of the children of Judah and Joseph, and they resolved to go to meet the Egyptians to fight with them.
32 And Moses said to them, Stand in your places, for the Lord will fight for you, and you shall remain silent.
33 And the fourth division was of the children of Levi, Gad, and Asher, and they resolved to go into the midst of the Egyptians to confound them, and Moses said to them, Remain in your stations and fear not, only call unto the Lord that he may save you out of their hands.
34 After this Moses rose up from amidst the people, and he prayed to the Lord and said,
35 O Lord God of the whole earth, save now thy people whom thou didst bring forth from Egypt, and let not the Egyptians boast that power and might are theirs.
36 So the Lord said to Moses, Why dost thou cry unto me? speak to the children of Israel that they shall proceed, and do thou stretch out thy rod upon the sea and divide it, and the children of Israel shall pass through it.
37 And Moses did so, and he lifted up his rod upon the sea and divided it.
38 And the waters of the sea were divided into twelve parts, and the children of Israel passed through on foot, with shoes, as a man would pass through a prepared road.
39 And the Lord manifested to the children of Israel his wonders in Egypt and in the sea by the hand of Moses and Aaron.
40 And when the children of Israel had entered the sea, the Egyptians came after them, and the waters of the sea resumed upon them, and they all sank in the water, and not one man was left excepting Pharaoh, who gave thanks to the Lord and believed in him, therefore the Lord did not cause him to perish at that time with the Egyptians.
41 And the Lord ordered an angel to take him from amongst the Egyptians, who cast him upon the land of Ninevah and he reigned over it for a long time.
42 And on that day the Lord saved Israel from the hand of Egypt, and all the children of Israel saw that the Egyptians had perished, and they beheld the great hand of the Lord, in what he had performed in Egypt and in the sea.
43 Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord, on the day when the Lord caused the Egyptians to fall before them.
44 And all Israel sang in concert, saying, I will sing to the Lord for He is greatly exalted, the horse and his rider has he cast into the sea; behold it is written in the book of the law of God.
45 After this the children of Israel proceeded on their journey, and encamped in Marah, and the Lord gave to the children of Israel statutes and judgments in that place in Marah, and the Lord commanded the children of Israel to walk in all his ways and to serve him.
46 And they journeyed from Marah and came to Elim, and in Elim were twelve springs of water and seventy date trees, and the children encamped there by the waters.
47 And they journeyed from Elim and came to the wilderness of Sin, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departure from Egypt.
48 At that time the Lord gave the manna to the children of Israel to eat, and the Lord caused food to rain from heaven for the children of Israel day by day.
49 And the children of Israel ate the manna for forty years, all the days that they were in the wilderness, until they came to the land of Canaan to possess it.
50 And they proceeded from the wilderness of Sin and encamped in Alush.
51 And they proceeded from Alush and encamped in Rephidim.
52 And when the children of Israel were in Rephidim, Amalek the son of Eliphaz, the son of Esau, the brother of Zepho, came to fight with Israel.
53 And he brought with him eight hundred and one thousand men, magicians and conjurers, and he prepared for battle with Israel in Rephidim.
54 And they carried on a great and severe battle against Israel, and the Lord delivered Amalek and his people into the hands of Moses and the children of Israel, and into the hand of Joshua, the son of Nun, the Ephrathite, the servant of Moses.
55 And the children of Israel smote Amalek and his people at the edge of the sword, but the battle was very sore upon the children of Israel.
56 And the Lord said to Moses, Write this thing as a memorial for thee in a book, and place it in the hand of Joshua, the son of Nun, thy servant, and thou shalt command the children of Israel, saying, When thou shalt come to the land of Canaan, thou shalt utterly efface the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.
57 And Moses did so, and he took the book and wrote upon it these words, saying,
58 Remember what Amalek has done to thee in the road when thou wentest forth from Egypt.
59 Who met thee in the road and smote thy rear, even those that were feeble behind thee when thou wast faint and weary.
60 Therefore it shall be when the Lord thy God shall have given thee rest from all thine enemies round about in the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance, to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven, thou shalt not forget it.
61 And the king who shall have pity on Amalek, or upon his memory or upon his seed, behold I will require it of him, and I will cut him off from amongst his people.
62 And Moses wrote all these things in a book, and he enjoined the children of Israel respecting all these matters.
Numbers 13:29-31 Names of God Bible (NOG)
29 The Amalekites live in the Negev. The Hittites, Jebusites, and Amorites live in the mountain region. And the Canaanites live along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and all along the Jordan River.”
30 Caleb told the people to be quiet and listen to Moses. Caleb said, “Let’s go now and take possession of the land. We should be more than able to conquer it.”
31 But the men who had gone with him said, “We can’t attack those people! They’re too strong for us!”
There are several other Holy Scriptures which talk about Amalek and the Amalekites. See below:
Numbers 14:25 Names of God Bible (NOG)
25 (The Amalekites and Canaanites are living in the valleys.) Tomorrow you must turn around, go back into the desert, and follow the road that goes to the Red Sea.”
Numbers 14:43-45Names of God Bible (NOG)
43 The Amalekites and Canaanites are there, and you will die in battle. Now that you have turned away from Yahweh, Yahweh will not be with you.”
44 But they headed into the mountain region anyway, even though the ark of Yahweh’s promise and Moses stayed in the camp. 45 The Amalekites and Canaanites who lived there came down from those mountains, attacked the Israelites, and defeated them at Hormah.[a]
Even Balaam the Son of Beor/Peor prophesied concerning the Amalekites. Look out for the name Agag below:
Numbers 24:7 Names of God Bible (NOG)
7 Water will flow from their buckets,
and their crops will have plenty of water.
Their king will be greater than Agag,
and their kingdom will be considered the best.
Note that Agag was one of Haman’s fathers.
In the Book of Deuteronomy, Moses was briefing the Children of Israel concerning the future. He also reiterated the past and gave various summaries of various events of their lifetime and before. Moses advised the Israelites on the way forward and their surroundings also
Deuteronomy 1:7 Names of God Bible (NOG)
7 Break camp, and get ready! Go to the mountain region of the Amorites, and go to everyone living on the plains, in the mountains, in the foothills, in the Negev, on the whole Mediterranean coast (the land of the Canaanites), and into Lebanon as far as the Euphrates River.
Judges 3:13 Names of God Bible (NOG)
13 Eglon got the Ammonites and the Amalekites to help him, and they defeated the Israelites and occupied the City of Palms.
Judges 3 Names of God Bible (NOG)
3 These are the nations Yahweh left behind to test all the Israelites who had not experienced any war in Canaan. 2 The Lord left them to teach Israel’s descendants about war, at least those who had known nothing about it in the past. 3 He left the five rulers of the Philistines, all the Canaanites, the Sidonians, and the Hivites who lived on Mount Lebanon from Mount Baal Hermon to the border of Hamath. 4 These nations were left to test the Israelites, to find out if they would obey the commands Yahweh had given their ancestors through Moses.
The People Fail the Test
5 So the people of Israel lived among the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites. 6 The Israelites allowed their sons and daughters to marry these people. Israel also served their gods.
Othniel Defeats Cushan Rishathaim
7 The people of Israel did what Yahweh considered evil. They forgot Yahweh their Elohim and served other gods and goddesses—the Baals and the Asherahs. 8 Yahweh became angry with the people of Israel. He used King Cushan Rishathaim of Aram Naharaim to defeat them. So Israel served Cushan Rishathaim for eight years.
9 Then the people of Israel cried out to Yahweh for help. Yahweh sent a savior to rescue them. It was Othniel, son of Caleb’s younger brother Kenaz. 10 When the Ruach Yahweh came over him, he became the judge of Israel. He went out to war. Yahweh handed King Cushan Rishathaim of Aram Naharaim over to him, and Othniel overpowered him. 11 So there was finally peace in the land for 40 years. Then Othniel, son of Kenaz, died.
Ehud Defeats Moab
12 Once again, the people of Israel did what Yahweh considered evil. So Yahweh made King Eglon of Moab stronger than Israel, because Israel did what Yahweh considered evil. 13 Eglon got the Ammonites and the Amalekites to help him, and they defeated the Israelites and occupied the City of Palms. 14 The Israelites served King Eglon of Moab for 18 years.
15 Then the people of Israel cried out to Yahweh for help. Yahweh sent a savior to rescue them. It was Ehud, a left-handed man from the tribe of Benjamin. (Ehud was the son of Gera.)
The people sent him with their tax payment to King Eglon of Moab. 16 Ehud made a two-edged dagger for himself. He fastened it to his right side under his clothes. 17 Then he brought the tax payment to King Eglon. (Eglon was a very fat man.) 18 When Ehud had finished delivering the payment, he sent back the men who had carried it. 19 However, Ehud turned around at the stone idols near Gilgal and returned to Eglon. He said, “Your Majesty, I have a secret message for you.”
The king replied, “Keep quiet!” Then all his advisers left the room.
20 Ehud came up to him as he sat alone in his room on the roof. He said to the king, “I have a message from Elohim for you.” As the king rose from his throne, 21 Ehud reached with his left hand, took the dagger from his right side, and plunged it into Eglon’s belly. 22 Even the handle went in after the blade. Eglon’s fat covered the blade because Ehud didn’t pull the dagger out. The blade stuck out in back.[a] 23 Ehud left the room.[b](He had closed and locked the doors of the room before he left.)
24 After Ehud went out, Eglon’s advisers came in. They were surprised that the doors were locked. “He must be using the toilet,” they said. 25 They waited and waited, but Eglon didn’t open the doors. So they took the key and opened the door. They were shocked to see their ruler lying on the floor, dead.
26 While they had been waiting, Ehud escaped. He went past the stone idols and escaped to Seirah. 27 When he arrived there, he blew a ram’s horn in the mountains of Ephraim to summon the troops. So the troops of Israel came down from the mountains with him, and he led them. 28 He told them, “Follow me! Yahweh will hand your enemy Moab over to you.”
They followed him and captured the shallow crossings of the Jordan River that led to Moab and refused to let anyone cross. 29 At that time they killed about ten thousand of Moab’s best fighting men. Not one of them escaped. 30 The power of Moab was crushed by Israel that day. So there was finally peace in the land for 80 years.
Shamgar Defeats the Philistines
31 After Ehud came Shamgar, son of Anath. He killed 600 Philistines with a sharp stick used for herding oxen. So he, too, rescued Israel.
Even King David came in contact with the Amalekites.
1 Samuel 30:1-2 Names of God Bible (NOG)
David Defeats the Amalekites
30 Two days later, when David and his men came to Ziklag, the Amalekites had raided the Negev, including Ziklag. They had attacked Ziklag and burned it. 2 Although they captured the young and old women who were there, they killed no one. Instead, they had taken the women and other prisoners and gone away.
2 Samuel 1:5-10 Names of God Bible (NOG)
5 “How do you know Saul and his son Jonathan are dead?” David asked the young man who had brought him the news.
6 The young man answered, “I happened to be on Mount Gilboa. Saul was there leaning on his spear, and the chariots and horsemen were catching up with him. 7 When he looked back and saw me, he called to me, and I said, ‘Yes?’”
8 “He asked me, ‘Who are you?’
“I said to him, ‘I’m an Amalekite.’
9 “He said to me, ‘Please stand over me and kill me. I’m alive, but I’m suffering.’[a]
10 “So I stood over him and killed him, since I knew he couldn’t survive after he had been wounded. And I took the crown that was on his head and the band that was on his arm and brought them here to you, sir.”
Reading the above passages now makes me understand better why YAHUVEH/YAHWEH ELOHIM Almighty was so angry with King Saul for not destroying the Amalekites totally and taking their spoil.
The Amalekites had always sought to kill the Israelites from the time of Jacob’s/Israel’s death but had not been victorious during all their attempts. However they still did not give up on constantly attacking the Israelites.
Read the full passage below:
1 Samuel 15 Names of God Bible (NOG)
Saul Disobeys the Lord
15 Samuel told Saul, “Yahweh sent me to anoint you king of his people Israel. Now listen to Yahweh’s words. 2 This is what Yahweh Tsebaoth says: I will punish Amalek for what they did to Israel. They blocked Israel’s way after the Israelites came from Egypt. 3 Now go and attack Amalek. Claim everything they have for God by destroying it. Don’t spare them, but kill men and women, infants and children, cows and sheep, camels and donkeys.”
4 Saul organized the troops, and he counted them at Telaim: 200,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 men from Judah. 5 Saul went to the city of Amalek and set an ambush in the valley. 6 Then Saul said to the Kenites, “Get away from the Amalekites so that I won’t destroy you with them. You were kind to all the Israelites when they came from Egypt.” So the Kenites left the Amalekites.
7 Saul attacked the Amalekites from Havilah to Shur, east of Egypt. 8 He captured King Agag of Amalek alive. But he claimed all the people for God by destroying them. 9 Saul and the army spared Agag and the best sheep and cows, the fattened animals, the lambs, and all the best property. The army refused to claim them for God by destroying them. But everything that was worthless and weak the army did claim for God and destroy.
The Lord Rejects Saul
10 Then Yahweh spoke to Samuel: 11 “I regret that I made Saul king. He turned away from me and did not carry out my instructions.” Samuel was angry, and he prayed to Yahweh all night. 12 Early in the morning he got up to meet Saul. Samuel was told, “Saul went to Carmel to set up a monument in his honor. Then he left there and went to Gilgal.”
13 Samuel came to Saul, who said, “Yahweh bless you. I carried out Yahweh’s instructions.”
14 However, Samuel asked,
“But what is this sound of sheep in my ears
and this sound of cows that I hear?”
15 Saul answered, “The army brought them from the Amalekites. They spared the best sheep and cows to sacrifice to Yahweh your Elohim. But the rest they claimed for God and destroyed.”
16 “Be quiet,” Samuel told Saul, “and let me tell you what Yahweh told me last night.”
“Speak,” Saul replied.
17 Samuel said, “Even though you don’t consider yourself great, you were the head of Israel’s tribes. Yahweh anointed you king of Israel. 18 And Yahweh sent you on a mission. He said, ‘Claim those sinners, the Amalekites, for me by destroying them. Wage war against them until they’re wiped out.’ 19 Why didn’t you obey Yahweh? Why have you taken their belongings and done what Yahweh considers evil?”
20 “But I did obey Yahweh,” Saul told Samuel. “I went where Yahwehsent me, brought back King Agag of Amalek, and claimed the Amalekites for God. 21 The army took some of their belongings—the best sheep and cows were claimed for God—in order to sacrifice to Yahweh your Elohim in Gilgal.”
22 Then Samuel said,
“Is Yahweh as delighted with burnt offerings and sacrifices
as he would be with your obedience?
To follow instructions is better than to sacrifice.
To obey is better than sacrificing the fat of rams.
23 The sin of black magic is rebellion.
Wickedness and idolatry are arrogance.
Because you rejected the word of Yahweh,
he rejects you as king.”
24 Then Saul told Samuel, “I have sinned by not following Yahweh’scommand or your instructions. I was afraid of the people and listened to them. 25 Now please forgive my sin and come back with me so that I may worship Yahweh.”
26 Samuel told Saul, “I will not go back with you because you rejected what Yahweh told you. So Yahweh rejects you as king of Israel.” 27 When Samuel turned to leave, Saul grabbed the hem of his robe, and it tore. 28 Samuel told him, “Yahweh has torn the kingdom of Israel from you today. He has given it to your neighbor who is better than you. 29 In addition, the Glory of Israel does not lie or change his mind, because he is not a mortal who changes his mind.”
30 Saul replied, “I have sinned! Now please honor me in front of the leaders of my people and in front of Israel. Come back with me, and let me worship Yahweh your Elohim.” 31 Then Samuel turned and followed Saul, and Saul worshiped Yahweh.
32 “Bring me King Agag of Amalek,” Samuel said.
Agag came to him trembling.[a] “Surely, the bitterness of death is past,”[b] Agag said.
33 But Samuel said, “As your sword made women childless, so your mother will be made childless among women.” And Samuel cut Agag in pieces in the presence of Yahweh at Gilgal.
34 Then Samuel went to Ramah, and Saul went to his home at Gibeah. 35 Samuel didn’t see Saul again before he died, though Samuel mourned over Saul. And Yahweh regretted that he had made Saul king of Israel.
Allowing some of the Amalekites to live was utter disobedience to YAHUVEH ELOHIM. It ended up affecting the Israelites all the days of their lives.
Do you that Haman mentioned in the Book of Esther was actually an Amalekite?
Haman is the main antagonist in the Book of Esther, who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was a vizier in the Persian empire under King Ahasuerus, traditionally identified as Xerxes I. As his name indicates,Haman was a descendant of Agag, the king of the Amalekites, a people who were wiped out in certain areas by King Saul and David.
Esther 3 Names of God Bible (NOG)
3 Later, King Xerxes promoted Haman. (Haman was the son of Hammedatha and was from Agag.) He gave Haman a position higher in authority than all the other officials who were with him. 2 All the king’s advisers were at the king’s gate, kneeling and bowing to Haman with their faces touching the ground, because the king had commanded it. But Mordecai would not kneel and bow to him.
3 Then the king’s advisers at the king’s gate asked Mordecai, “Why do you ignore the king’s command?” 4 Although they asked him day after day, he paid no attention to them. So they informed Haman to see if Mordecai’s actions would be tolerated, since Mordecai had told them that he was a Jew.
5 When Haman saw that Mordecai did not kneel and bow to him, Haman was infuriated. 6 Because the king’s advisers had informed him about Mordecai’s nationality, he thought it beneath himself to kill only Mordecai. So Haman planned to wipe out Mordecai’s people—all the Jews in the entire kingdom of Xerxes.
7 In Xerxes’ twelfth year as king, Pur (which means the lot) was thrown in front of Haman for every day of every month, from Nisan, the first month, until Adar, the twelfth month.
8 Now, Haman told King Xerxes, “Your Majesty, there is a certain nationality scattered among—but separate from—the nationalities in all the provinces of your kingdom. Their laws differ from those of all other nationalities. They do not obey your decrees. So it is not in your interest to tolerate them, Your Majesty. 9 If you approve, have the orders for their destruction be written. For this I will pay 750,000 pounds of silver to your treasurers to be put in your treasury.”
10 At that, the king removed his signet ring and gave it to Haman, the enemy of the Jews. (Haman was the son of Hammedatha and was from Agag.) 11 The king told Haman, “You can keep your silver and do with the people whatever you like.”
Haman Prepares to Kill the Jews
12 On the thirteenth day of the first month the king’s scribes were summoned. All Haman’s orders were written to the king’s satraps, the governors of every province, and the officials of every people. They wrote to each province in its own script and to the people in each province in their own language. The orders were signed in the name of King Xerxes and sealed with the king’s ring. 13 Messengers were sent with official documents to all the king’s provinces. The people were ordered to wipe out, kill, and destroy all the Jews—young and old, women and children—on a single day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, the month of Adar. Their possessions were also to be seized. 14 A copy of the document was made public in a decree to every province. All the people were to be ready for this day.
15 The messengers hurried out as the king told them. The decree was also issued at the fortress of Susa. So the king and Haman sat down to drink a toast, but the city of Susa was in turmoil.
Haman is described as the son of Hammedatha the Agagite. In the story, Haman instigates a plot to kill all of the Jews of ancient Persia. Haman attempts to convince Ahasuerus to order the killing of Mordecai and all the Jews of the lands he ruled. The plot is foiled by Queen Esther, the king’s recent wife, who is herself a Jew. Haman is hanged from the gallows that had originally been built, on the advice of his wife Zeresh, to hang Mordecai. The dead bodies of his ten sons Parshandatha, Dalphon, Aspatha, Poratha, Adalia, Aridatha, Parmashta, Arisai, Aridai and Vaizatha (or Vajezatha), are also hanged after they die in battle trying to kill the Jews (Esther 9:5-14). Haman is upset that Mordecai refuses to bow down to him, as told in chapter 3:
. . . and advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes who were with him. And all the king’s servants, who were in the king’s gate, bowed, and did obeisance to Haman; for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai did not bow, or do him obeisance. (Esther, 3:1-2)
And when Haman saw that Mordecai did not bow or do him obedience, then Haman was full of wrath. But he disdained to lay hands on Mordecai alone; for they had told him of the people of Mordecai; so that Haman sought to destroy all the Jews who were throughout the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus, the people of Mordecai. (Esther, 3:5-6).
Queen Esther, learning that her people are in danger, risks her own life to spare the Jews living in Ancient Persia.
King Ahasuerus asked Queen Esther, “Who is he? Where is the man who has dared to do such a thing?” 6 Esther said, “The adversary and enemy is this vile Haman.” Then Haman was terrified before the king and queen. 7 The king got up in a rage, left his wine and went out into the palace garden. But Haman, realizing that the king had already decided his fate, stayed behind to beg Queen Esther for his life. 8 Just as the king returned from the palace garden to the banquet hall, Haman was falling on the couch where Esther was reclining. The king exclaimed, “Will he even molest the queen while she is with me in the house?” 9 As soon as the word left the king’s mouth, they covered Haman’s face.
9 Then Harbona, one of the eunuchs attending the king, said, “A gallows 50 feet [b] high stands by Haman’s house. He had it made for Mordecai, who spoke up to help the king.” 10 The king said, “Hang him on it!” 10 So they hanged Haman on the gallows he had prepared for Mordecai. Then the king’s fury subsided. (Esther, 7:6-10)
9 Then Harbona, one of the king’s eunuchs, said, “Haman has set up a sharpened pole that stands seventy-five feet tall in his own courtyard. He intended to use it to impale Mordecai, the man who saved the king from assassination.” “Then impale Haman on it!” the king ordered. 10 So they impaled Haman on the pole he had set up for Mordecai, and the king’s anger subsided.
In Rabbinical tradition, Haman is considered to be an archetype of evil and persecutor of the Jews. Having attempted to exterminate the Jews of Persia, and rendering himself thereby their worst enemy, Haman naturally became the center of many Talmudic legends. Being at one time in extreme want, he sold himself as a slave to Mordechai (Meg. 15a). He was a barber at Kefar Karzum for the space of twenty-two years (ib. 16a). Haman had an idolatrous image embroidered on his garments, so that those who bowed to him at command of the king bowed also to the image (Esth. R. vii.).
Haman was also an astrologer, and when he was about to fix the time for the genocide of the Jews he first cast lots to ascertain which was the most auspicious day of the week for that purpose. Each day, however, proved to be under some influence favorable to the Jews. He then sought to fix the month, but found that the same was true of each month; thus, Nisan was favorable to the Jews because of the Passover sacrifice; Iyyar, because of the small Passover. But when he arrived at Adar he found that its zodiacal sign was Pisces, and he said, “Now I shall be able to swallow them as fish which swallow one another” (Esth. R. vii.; Targ. Sheni iii.).
Haman had 365 counselors, but the advice of none was so good as that of his wife, Zeresh. She induced Haman to build a gallows for Mordechai, assuring him that this was the only way in which he would be able to prevail over his enemy, for hitherto the just had always been rescued from every other kind of death. As God foresaw that Haman himself would be hanged on the gallows, He asked which tree would volunteer to serve as the instrument of death. Each tree, declaring that it was used for some holy purpose, objected to being soiled by the unclean body of Haman. Only the thorn-tree could find no excuse, and therefore offered itself for a gallows (Esth. R. ix.; Midr. Abba Gorion vii., ed. Buber, Wilna, 1886; in Targum Sheni this is narrated somewhat differently).
Haman’s lineage is given in the Targum Sheni as follows: “Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, son of Srach, son of Buza, son of Iphlotas, son of Dyosef, son of Dyosim, son of Prome, son of Ma’dei, son of Bla’akan, son of Intimros, son of Haridom, son of Sh’gar, son of Nigar, son of Farmashta, son of Vayezatha, (son of Agag, son of Sumkei,) son of Amalek, son of the concubine of Eliphaz, firstborn son of Esau”. There are apparently several generations omitted between Agag, who was executed by Samuel the prophet in the time of King Saul, and Amalek, who lived several hundred years earlier (Reference: Wikipedia).
Fate of Amalek
David waged a sacred war of extermination against the Amalekites, who retaliated (I Sam. xxx. 1) by a successful surprise of Ziklag. David, however, followed and caught the Amalekites on the retreat, regaining their captives and spoils. On this occasion the Amalekites, like all desert warriors, made their raids upon camels. After this defeat Amalek disappears, so that it seems as though the nation had actually been exterminated by the wars with Saul and David. I Chron. iv. 42-43 states that in the time of Hezekiah five hundred Simeonites annihilated the last remnant “of the Amalekites that had escaped” on Mount Seir and settled there in the placeof Amalek. Thus the related tribes Amalek and Edom were united again at the end.
—In Rabbinical Literature:
Amalek—the first foe to attack the people of Israel after they had come out of Egypt as a free nation; twice designated in the Pentateuch (Ex. xvii. 14-16, Deut. xxv. 19) as the one against whom war should be waged until his memory be blotted out forever—became in rabbinical literature the type of Israel’s arch-enemy. In the tannaitic Haggadah of the first century Amalek stands for Rome (Bacher, “Ag. Tan.” i. 146 et seq., 211 et seq.); and so does Edom (Esau), from whom Amalek descended (Gen. xxxvi.). A kinsman of the Israelites, Amalek nevertheless displayed the most intense hatred toward them: he inherited Esau’s hostility to his brother Jacob. When other nations hesitated to harm God’s chosen ones, his evil example induced them to join him in the fray. “Like a robber he waylaid Israel”; “like a swarm of locusts”; “like a leech eager for blood”; “like a fly looking for sores to feed on”; Amalek (‘am laḳ = the people which licketh) hurried over hundreds of miles to intercept Israel’s march:
(Tan. Ki Teẓe, ix., and Pesiḳ. iii. 26b)
“Having taken the list of the tribes from the archives of Egypt, he arrayed his hosts in front of the Israelitish camp—over which God’s glory rested in the sheltering pillar of cloud—and called the names of the tribes aloud, one after the other, and pretending to have business negotiations with them, he treacherously slew the last, or, rather, the guilty ones among them, those chosen by lot”.
From the following, we can also learn one or two things:
The Midrash relates: Cursed are the wicked. They occupy their time with ideas about how to destroy the Jews, with each one vying for the honor of having the best idea. Esav ridiculed Cain for killing Abel during Adam’s lifetime. If Cain wanted the whole world for himself, he should have realized that Adam was still alive and could have more children. Esav was not going to make that mistake. He would wait until Yitzchok’s death and then kill Yaakov. Later, it was Pharaoh’s turn to laugh at Esav. Didn’t Esav know that Yaakov could have children before Yitzchok died? Nothing would be gained by killing Yaakov if he had offspring that would survive him. Pharaoh thought himself smarter than Esav. He would kill every Jewish male at birth. Centuries later it was Pharaoh’s turn to be thought a fool, by Haman. Didn’t Pharaoh understand that even if one Jewish male remained he could father the nation anew? Haman’s plan was to kill them all!
The Midrash concludes by teaching that in the future, Gog and Magog will deride Haman. Didn’t Haman know that the Jews have a Father in Heaven Who will never let them be destroyed as long as they do His bidding? So they will first do battle with God by keeping the Jews from observing the Torah and mitzvot. This will enable them to destroy the Jews. But God’s response to this is clear: “I have many messengers whom I can send into battle. But the war against Gog and Magog I shall wage Myself. Their destruction shall be complete” (Esther Rabbah 7:23.)
Today, though Amalek definitely and unfortunately exists, we cannot say with certainty who, or where, all of them are. However, there is a noteworthy exception. When Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany visited Jerusalem during his journey to the Holy Land almost all the religious leaders of Jerusalem came to the city gates to greet him. Rabbi Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld (d.1932), the spiritual leader of Ashkenazic Jewry in Israel at that time, did not go. When asked about his refusal he answered that although the Kaiser himself was deserving of the honor bestowed upon him, “I have a tradition that Germany is Amalek.”
The Amalek Within
Our Sages teach that God says to the Jews, “If you do not remember Amalek, you will be sent back to the bondage of Egypt” (Pesikta Rabati 12). This is exhibited frequently on a personal level. The modus operandi that Amalek has always used in attacking the Jews can be described in a word: Devious. He gets the international community embroiled in some sort of political or military conflict for example, the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait or he gets Jews to engage in some worthy cause “civil rights” all with one goal in mind: The annihilation of the Jews. Amalek has the same numerical value (240) as “safek”, doubt (B’nei Yissaschar, Purim). The Amalek that is omnipresent today are the questions and doubts that we have regarding our faith. This includes the uncertainties, confusion and troubles we face when we lack proper direction and advice. When we strengthen ourselves in true faith in God, we overpower the Amalek within.
Reb Noson writes that Amalek corresponds to burning lust, the strife between husband and wife, between a person and his community and the hatred directed against the true tzaddikim (Likutey Halakhot, Minchah 7:20).
An additional aspect of Amalek that is prevalent today: False leaders.
“The Torah writes, [Amalek] smote the hindmost among you” (Deuteronomy 25:18). Our Sages teach: “[Amalek] separates the tails and throws them high (Tanchuma, Ki Taytze 10). Reb Noson writes: “Amalek found a clever way to destroy the Jewish nation. ‘He takes the tails,’ people of little or no stature and ‘throws them high’ makes them into Jewish leaders (Likutey Halakhot, Shabbat, 5:9). Thus, the Jewish people have been fooled into thinking that their leaders are men of stature when in reality many of them are ordinary people who lack the ability to guide. A nation without proper leaders is easily misled, and so many unsuspecting and misguided Jews end up living a life devoid of real Jewish meaning.
Yet another face of Amalek that plagues us today is forgetfulness (ibid., Aveidah u’Metzia 1:3). We forget God’s goodness, the countless times He’s helped us in many ways, large and small (ibid., Nachlot 4:12). This leads to our forgetting about God, the Torah and mitzvot, and even the Mashiach, who will bring
the Ultimate Redemption. Perhaps, since Amalek represents forgetfulness, we’re instructed to remember what he did. Even though we don’t know which individuals today are Amalekites, the mitzvah to remember the evil, ruthless and cruel behavior they personify, remains. This mitzvah is fulilled when we recite the passage in Deuteronomy 25, verses 17-19. This is done communally on the Sabbath preceding Purim. Some have a custom of saying these verses daily (see Sha’ar HaKavannot, Inyan Yotzer Or, p.119)
Ultimately, Amalek will be destroyed. He will be set upon by thieves who will leave him penniless (Tana d’Bei Eliyahu Raba 24) Then God Himself will battle Amalek, exposing him for the sinner that he is before removing him from the face of the earth (Tana d’Bei Eliyahu Zuta 19). May this take place quickly, in our lifetime, Amen.
(Reference: http://www.breslov.org/who-and-where-is-amalek-today/ )